What are Kidney Stones

Nephrolithiasis or kidney stones are small stone like lumps formed in the kidney.  The size of kidney varies from small grain of sand to the size of golf ball.  These stones are formed  by the accumulations of mineral salts,  other substances.  Usually these stones are small enough, to get passed off during urination, but if stone has become larger, then it needs a bit of special care.  Kidney stones can induce a larger intensity of pain.

What makes kidney stones?

Kidney stones have two distinct makeups.  The centre is made up of crystal like substances, while the outer part is composed of different layers.  There are various types of kidney stones.  Depending upon the chief ingredient, the kidney stones are of four different kinds.  These are calcium stones, uric acid stones, cystine stones, struvite stones.

Let us discuss these stones in details.

Calcium stones are of  most common types.  You find them in majority of the cases.  Around seventy-five to eighty percent people, suffering from kidney stones develop the same.  The stones contain calcium oxalate and phosphate, as a chief ingredient.  Uric acid stones are formed due to higher concentration of uric acid in the blood and urine.  These stones also develop when the urine becomes highly acidic with certain dissolved chemicals that make it more acidic.  Nearly five to eight percent people among kidney patient are suspected to suffer from this.  Cystine stones are also a kind kidney stone that is formed  by amino acids.  Although this is rare to you would find with people.  This is caused due to genetic conditions.  Cystine is a kind of amono acid, which is not dissolved in water.  As a result, it forms cystine stones.  Struvite stones, is found in almost ten to fifteen percent among all kidney stones.  These are the largest one among all kidney stones.  Struvite stones are formed of by the infection of a specific bacteria, which throws causes protein leakage in the urine.  These stones are mainly composed of ammonium and magnesium phosphate and resemble the shape of hard crystal.

The different ways to diagnose kidney stones

With the advancement of technology, these days do not have to jump into the critical surgery.  There some of the very clinical remedies that can let you get rid of kidney stones.

  • Shock waves:
    It is easiest way of removing kidney stones.  Through this technique the doctor simply trigger, shock waves to the kidney stones.  By the help of shock waves, the kidney stones are broken into pieces, and removed through urination.  This therapy is as also known as extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy or ESWL.
  • Tunnel surgery:
    In the tunnel surgery, the doctor makes cut into patients back and insert a small tunnel through the skin inside the kidney. With a special instrument, the tunnel reaches to stone and removes it.  The medical name for the tunnel surgery is percutaneous nephrolithotomy.
  • Ureteroscope:
    An ureteroscope appears like a long wire.  With the help of camera, it is passed to kidney via urethra and urinary bladder.  The cage like device is use to remove the stone.
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