What is a Blood Transfusion

If a person lost a good amount of blood in an accident or in any disease, then he or she needs blood from any external source to stay alive. The process through which the patient will get blood intravenously is called as blood transfusion. You may not know that blood transfusion can be done internally from one portion of the body to another portion of the body. However, blood transfusion from external source is more common and frequently done.

A person can suffer from low RBC or WBC count despite of having sufficient amount of blood. In this case, the patient seeks only RBC or WBC from external source, in stead of whole blood. This process of getting WBC, RBC or any other blood constituent from internal or external source is also called as blood transfusion.

Blood is nowhere available for sale. So, one has to find out a donor, if he or she is in a need to blood. Only finding a donor will not do the trick. One has to find a donor, which is of same blood type as of the seeking person. This means the blood group of the donor and the recipient must be same or compatible. There is no confusion, if the donor has the same blood group as the recipient, but what is compatible?

There are antigen and anti body in each blood cell. The blood grouping is done according to the presence of antigen and antibody in a person’s blood. If a person has blood of group A positive. Then, the blood of that person contains antigen A, anti body B and Rh factor is there. All of these three are neutral to each other and that is why, all of them are present in each and every blood cell of that person without reacting with each other.

Antigen A reacts with antibody A. Antigen B reacts with antibody B. So, a person having antigen A can’t intake blood, which has antibody B and vice versa. Similarly, a person, who hasn’t Rh factor in his or her blood couldn’t intake blood having Rh factor in it. From the above discussion, we can conclude that negative blood group having person couldn’t intake blood from a person, who is having positive blood group. However, as the Rh factor is already there, a positive blood group having person could take both Rh negative and positive blood.

AB positive is called as universal accepter as there is no antibody in this blood group and Rh factor is already there. On the other hand, O negative is called as universal donor. This factor makes people with O negative blood group special. 

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