What is a Natural Disaster

Natural disasters are the events that can be sudden and extreme to the extent of injuring people or damaging their property too. Some of the known natural disasters are in the form of Earthquakes, Volcanoes, Floods and life threatening diseases that can strike almost in any part of the world and that too without any sign of a warning. 

Some of the most common disasters are Floods, Famines, Droughts, Volcanic eruptions and Landslides etc. 

  • Floods: The stream that overflows natural river bank with a heavy force is called as a flood calamity. The causes of this kind of disaster are change in the course of a river flow, landslide preventing the natural flow of river water, heavy rainfall and weak natural drainage.
    Blockages due to drainage are more commonly observed in the areas that have a dense population settled nearer to the river banks. These areas are thus more vulnerable to natural calamities like floods.
  • Earth-quakes: The sudden outbreaks or release of an accumulated energy in the crust of the earth creating seismic waves are called as Earthquakes. One of the major causes of Earthquakes is the geological faults. However there are also other events like volcanic eruptions, mine blasts, landslides and nuclear tests that can cause the earthquakes.
    Earthquake caused due to the seismic waves is known to be a major cause of profound destruction and taking a death toll of a large number of populations. 
  • Landslides: These are in the form of rocky or debris mass movements that tend to follow some of the major disasters like earthquakes, volcanic eruptions and cyclones. Landlines can create havocs over the property and life of the human beings.
    Effective measures to prevent majority of landslides are efficient land-utilization process, reforestation, drainage correction, proper infrastructure, and public awareness.
  • Cyclones:  A whirl surrounding the atmosphere with mighty or strong winds circulating in anti-clockwise and clockwise direction both in Northern and Southern Hemisphere respectively are called as cyclones. Cyclones tend to cause substantial reduction and damage to the fertility of the soil, erode the live stocks, drowns the people, causes floods due to heavy rainfall and also destroy agricultural vegetation.
  • Volcanoes: A volcanic eruptions takes place due to an eruption of magna which is beneath the earth surface. The magna that escapes from the surface of the earth releases a strong energy producing substantial quantity of dust, harmful and fatal gases.
  • Droughts: These are caused due to reduced or absence of rainfall in certain drought prone areas. Droughts are known to be one of the causes of environmental damages, taking death of millions of people due to water shortage. 

One of the major natural calamities that occurred in 2004 was the “tsunami”. This disaster gave a cause of concern to many people who feared the occurrence of more such frequent disasters. It is now indeed, a need of the time to formulate and implement some of the effective governmental polices, rules, regulations and management policies in order to prevent major natural disasters taking the death toll of millions of people every year.