What is Binary Fission

Binary fission is kind of asexual reproduction that most of the prokaryotic organisms use. Not only prokaryotic organism eukaryotic organisms also make use of the process. Eukaryotic organism opts for binary fission to duplicate entire organism. However, not the entire eukaryotic organisms take help of this reproduction system to solve the purpose and it is viewed in a few organelles only. During binary fission 2 daughter cells get produced by the single parent cell, which can easily clone itself.  Researchers who are working on binary fission make use Escherichia Coli, a special bacterium, which represent this special method nicely and it is quite copious as well.

The process:

Binary fission is a different process of reproduction that follows a particular method. In order to create 2 complete sets, the cell starts duplicating its DNA structure. Later on, the cell starts changing their size and grows much larger than what they normally are. As the cell start growing, the DNA sets start moving towards the opposite end of the cells. After achieving the proper size, the cell starts splitting into 2, to create daughter cells within identical DNA structure. This reproduction system is used on the organism that leaves in stables environment.


Though binary fission is the basic method of reproduction in prokaryotic, but it vary in different organisms.

  • In case of protists the processes get divided in types like longitudinal or transverse and it depends on the alliance of cell separation.
  • In sycphostome polyps or tape worms’ regular transverse is known as strobilation.
  • In a few metazoans it is noticed that they undergo body division simultaneously and this process is known as fragmentation, which is also a part of binary fission. 

This entire organism follows the basic rule of binary fission but make changes in the process according to their bodily needs.

Binary fission in bacteria:

In bacteria, binary fission generally results in 2 identical cells but the DNA of the bacteria carry high rate of mutation. This rapid genetical change in bacteria helps them to:

  • Develop resistance power in a antibiotics
  • Bacteria get capable to make use of invasion and perform well in different environmental condition.

Other facts:

Bacteria also have different mechanisms to exchange genetic material like other organisms, however it is not equivalent to sexual reproduction. In case of bacteria the end result of binary fission is that it contains mixture of character from individual parent cells. In case of bacteria, three dissimilar modes of exchange are noticed. Bacteria can also swap genetic material through transduction process, a part of binary fission.

In case of binary fission the timing is very important as any organism should do it at exact moment. Errors in the process may result in incomplete cell formation with improper DNA structure. However if a stepal ring is produced, it can prevent this.