What is Biology
A natural science that deals with the study of life and the living organism is known as biology. This natural science also includes the structural, functional working, its origin and the functioning of the living organisms. In other words, biology discusses about the living being in details. Biology includes many sub divisions, but biology as a whole can be mainly divided into 2 categories. The first category of biology is the study of animals which is known as Zoology. The second category of Biology is the study of plants which is known as Botany.
Through the study of living organisms, there are several observations made. The first and the most important observation is that the body is made up of cells. The basic units of life are cells. Evolution is in biology which defines the formation of the species, and the evolution of the species in the course of time. The next important observation was that the gene is the basic unit involved in heredity. These are a few major observations that were made in biology. These also lay its foundations in discovering new things.
Cell theory was one of the important topics that laid the foundation for modern Biology. Cell is the fundamental unit in a living organism. Cell involves cell division, and it is through this process that new cells take form in a living organism. The basic unit of most of the pathological processes is also cells. Every cell carries the hereditary information in the DNA. This information is passed to other cells through cell division.
Genes are the units in living things that result in heredity. Genes are present in the DNA(Deoxyribo Nucleic Acid) of a living organism, which defines the functioning of a living species in a specific way. In a cell of a living species, the DNA changes to proteins. This protein is further transcribed to RNA version of protein. These are responsible for the transfer of heredity from one organism to another.
It was noticed through observations in biology that the living organism has its own homeostasis. Homeostasis means that the body has a mechanism to regulate the internal conditions to stabilize in case of imbalance. Hence, homeostasis is also an important topic which laid foundations to modern biology.
Energy is the most essential thing for the working of the living species. The energy that is consumed in the form of food is utilized by the cells to form chemical reactions in the body.
These are the topics on which the foundations for the modern biology were laid. The modern biology took its form from these observations. Biology has discovered many things, but there are many more which would be known in the course of time.