What is Cloning
Cloning refers to developing the offspring that would be genetically identical to its parent. Cloning includes the process of creation of the child is asexually which means the one individual produces the offspring which is genetically identical to itself. It is also known as creating the identical copy of DNA in a laboratory.
Three different types of cloning:
Reproductive Cloning: To generate an animal that has same nuclear DNA as that of previous animal. A sheep named dolly is created by reproductive cloning.
DNA cloning: It is also called Molecular cloning and gene cloning in which the DNA of interest is to be transmitted to the foreign host cell.
It mainly involves 4 steps:
Fragmentation: breaking the DNA
Ligation: joining in a pattern the desired DNA
Transfection: insertion of DNA into new cells
Screening/selection: selecting the cells with the new DNA.
Therapeutic Cloning: It is also called embryo cloning is the production of human embryos .By this technology we does not create the cloned human being, but to harvest stem cells that study human development to treat disease. These stem cells are extracted from the egg after it has divided for 5 days which is called blastocyst.
Following are the techniques of the Cloning:
Somatic Cell Nuclear Transfer: it leads to transfer of nucleus from somatic cell (blood cell,skin cell etc )to egg. The nucleus is inserted into the unfertilized egg
The roslin technique: Somatic cells are allowed to grow and deprived of nutrients to induce the cell into dormant stage. The cell fuse and the egg is allowed to develop in an embryo
The Honolulu technique: The nucleus from the somatic cell is removed and injected into an egg which is bathed in a chemical solution and this developing embryo is implanted into surrogate.
Benefits of Cloning:
It helps in curing the disease such as cancer ,AIDS, diabetes, stroke etc
Cloning of cell can produce good cell from existing cell and therefore damaged cells can be replaced.
Cloning removes the problem of infertility.
Disadvantages Of Cloning:
The cloning dolly produced from the reproductive cloning is resulted into the death when she was 6 years old. The dolly experiment started with 277 fused eggs out of which 29 become embryos and are transferred to 13 sheep out of which 1 became pregnant.
Cloning may create social side effects that separates the humans from love and relationships.