What is Debridement

Debridement is medical treatment in which amputation of dead, damaged or infected tissues is done. So, those healthy tissues are not tainted by damaged one and also they can perform their functions in a better way.

Removal of tissues can be done by following ways:-

Surgery can be done in which medical instruments are used to treat patients. Mechanical or chemical methods can be used. Autolysis or self-digestion can be used in which cells by their own action destroy enzymes. It may also refer to digestion of an enzyme by another molecule of the same enzyme. Maggot therapy is also known as larva therapy. It is a biotherapy in which deliberately disinfected maggots (larvae of fly) is introduced into infected skin for the purpose of cleaning.

Before debridement patient’s health is examined and wounds are cleaned with mild saline solution. Debridement can be agonizing so nurses, doctors take necessary tools with them.

Oral hygiene which is related with keeping the mouth and teeth clean and dentistry which is involved in the treatment of diseases of the oral cavity debridement refers to removal of plaque and calculus that are accumulated on the teeth. In oral hygiene and dentistry this treatment is performed by using ultrasonic instruments which break the calculus or instead of using tools chemicals like hydrogen peroxide is used.

Podiatry which is study of treating the disorders of the foot, ankle and lower leg remove calculus, corns using this treatment.

Debridement is also use to heal burns and wounds. In some cases it is also use to treat some kinds of snake bites.

Sometimes the boundaries of infected tissues can’t be found precisely. In that case infection can spread from diseased tissues to healthy tissues. But the tissues that are recently affected are difficult to find. In such circumstances, a surgeon may prefer to debride a portion of healthy tissue so as to ensure that disease is completely removed.

The main type of debridement is autolytic debridement in which body’s own enzymes and moisture is use to rehydrate, soften and then liquefy hard eschar and slough. Eschar is a piece of dead tissue on the surface of skin because of burn, injury. This debridement is painless for the patient. The main pros of this treatment are that it has no effect on surrounding skin; it is safe, effective and easy to perform. Its disadvantage is that it is allow as compared to other surgical debridement.

Another type is enzymatic in which chemical enzymes are use to produce slough of necrotic tissue. Its advantage is that it is very rapid and no damage to healthy tissue. Its cons are that it is expensive and discomfort may occur after this.

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