What Is Diabetes
The full name of Diabetes is Diabetes Mellitus in which it is a metabolism disorder. Actually metabolism of the body means that it converts the digested food into energy and growth. The food we eat shall be broken in to glucose so as to give energy to all the parts of body. That glucose is a form of sugar and dissolves in the blood to fuel up the body with energy. The glucose dissolves in to the blood with the help of insulin. Our cells make use of glucose for growth and energy. Insulin is a hormone produced by pancreas. After eating food, pancreas secretes adequate quantity of insulin to move the glucose of our blood in to the cells thus lowering the blood sugar level. Actually this is the process of metabolism of our body.
The person who is suffering with diabetes will have such a condition in which the glucose in the blood will not enter in to the cells considerably thereby refers to a conditions called hyperglycemia. As the body could not produce enough insulin, no insulin or do not respond properly to the insulin produced by pancreas. Too much glucose levels build up in blood leads to diabetes. Excess glucose present in the blood passes through the urine. Though the blood has enough glucose, it won’t get enter into the cells, thus people seem dull and tired. Essential energy and growth cannot be seen in such persons.
Actually diabetes mellitus means siphoning off sweet water. China people observed that ants are getting attracted to the urine of some people and hence they termed it as sweet urine disease. There are three types of diabetes generally seen in most of the people where no insulin is produced at all, producing less insulin and diabetes during the pregnancy. Types I and II are very chronic medical conditions. Type III can be resolved after the pregnancy and there exists no problem with such type. After giving birth to the child, even traces of diabetes also cannot be seen in the person.
There is treatment for diabetes and many doctors are now doing specialization of diabetes also. First and second types lasts for a life time and there is no prescribed permanent treatment for its cure. Through medicines they will consume the insulin and makes their lives better. Type 1 shall be cured only with the help of injecting insulin into the body. Type 2 can be controlled with tablets, regular body exercise and with special diet. At rare cases, they too shall be treated with insulin injections but not always.
Prevention is better than cure. This proverb suits this disease well. If the person with diabetes is not kept his levels under control, he shall have to face the risk of developing lot of complications such as ketoacidosis, hypoglycemia etc., Long term complications may effect to major organs of the body like kidney failure, nerve damage, gangrene on the feet, poor healing of wounds etc. On the whole, diabetes is unlike all the diseases have to control it to the maximum extent.
What Is Type 1 Diabetes
Type 1 Diabetes is an ailment wherein, the blood sugar level of the person suffering from this disease increases more than the normal level. Type 1 Diabetes is classified as a genetic disease which is caused by the improper production of insulin in the body leading to the glucose entering the bloodstream. The exact reason for diabetes has not been found out, but experts are of the opinion that it is a genetically transmitted disease which is triggered by an infection. The infection leads to improper functioning of the pancreas, thereby, causing a drop in production of insulin and consequent increase in blood glucose level.
The main symptoms of Type 1 Diabetes are frequent urination, increased thirst and sudden weight loss. In some people, a significant increase in hunger is also reported. The breath odor also changes and blurred vision is also experienced in people who reach the later stages of Type 1 Diabetes. Stomach pain, nausea and vomiting too are seen in such people over a period of time. However, since these kinds of symptoms can be seen in other ailments too, it is important that the right kind of diagnosis is sought for before going for any treatment options.
The diagnosis of Type 1 Diabetes includes glucose level test and oral glucose tolerance tests as the main methods. In some patients, the Hemoglobin A1C test is also conducted to confirm the presence of the ailment. Ketone tests are also performed to determine the level of ketoacedosis that develops in some patients who suffer from diabetes.
The treatment for Type 1 Diabetes includes the intake of right amount of insulin everyday under doctor’s supervision to ensure that the excess glucose in the bloodstream gets back into the cells. However, it is to be noted that the one needs to have knowledge about the adjustment that needs to be done with the amount of insulin that he intakes when he is sick, travelling or exercising to ensure that the blood sugar level does not fall rapidly due to excess intake. Also, maintaining a balanced diet is the key to keep the ailment under control. People with diabetes are more at risk of heart related ailments; therefore, making it necessary for them to exercise regularly to avoid complications of any kind.
A person can keep a check over his blood sugar level with the help of the device called glucometer. Since people with Type 1 Diabetes do not feel the pressure on their feet and experience numbness at times, it is important to give more importance to foot care by wearing shoes with good cushioning to avoid infections of any kind due to bruises that go unnoticed in the initial stage.
What is Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is basically a metabolic disorder that is accompanied by high levels of blood sugar in the human body. Insulin is required by the human body to break down the food and use the glucose of the food to provide energy to the human body. When this insulin stops being produced in the human body or the human body cells start ignoring the insulin then comes the fear of type 2 diabetes. It is the most common form of diabetes.
The main cause of type 2 diabetes is obesity. This does not occur only in the adults but these days have become extremely common in kids and teenagers too. In fact in the USA more and more kids are coming in the category of being obese and are more susceptible of getting the disease. With the lifestyle of the people getting relaxed day by day the chances of being obese and getting type 2 diabetes increases in humans.
In the very initial stages diabetes can be controlled merely by regular exercise and change in the food habits. But in later stages and if the exercise and food habits do not affect then medication becomes necessary. Insulin may also be have to be taken in extreme cases. The blood sugar levels should be checked from time to time.
The most common symptoms of type 2 diabetes are excess of thirst, being regularly hungry and the urge to urinate more often. Long term effects of diabetes can be heart failure, kidney related problems. In extreme cases there can be loss of vision and hearing capabilities. Just maintaining the blood sugar levels is not enough to fight diabetes. There are various other medications and exercises that need to followed and done to avoid reaching these extreme cases.
Besides obesity there are a few other causes which can lead to type 2 diabetes. Most of these causes are personal and are controllable in the hands of the patient himself. Lack of good sleep can be one the causes, the physical and mental stress that a person goes through also affects the persons blood sugar levels. Diabetes is also among one of the disease that are caused genetically. If the genes carry the disease there are chances of the person getting that disease too. Certain medications that the person is under may also cause type 2 diabetes to occur.
The best way for the prevention of type 2 diabetes is regular exercise and a proper diet. A healthy lifestyle is required for the person to avoid being a victim of the type 2 diabetes. A regular check up should also be done.
What is Gestational Diabetes
You may have seen how some babies are born deformed or mentally challenged as a result of some adverse pre-natal conditions or factors. Such things make one feel that there should be some caution and care adopted when a woman is expecting. So, the soon-to-be mothers would often take all the care so that the child inside is secure and healthy. However, sometimes, women often ignore a great potential threat known as gestational diabetes. This disease is something that occurs exclusively only in pregnant women. What happens is that there is a sudden, instantaneous and also abnormal increase in the levels of sugar in the blood of pregnant women. When such a thing happens, all hell could break loose.
Generally, the high blood sugar levels could be attributed to a number of causes other than the abnormal condition of gestational diabetes. One reason is the tension or anxiety that accompanies women who are expecting. Or it could be that the sugar levels are already high in women prior to the later stages of pregnancy. It has also been found that women, with no previous evidence of diabetes, have been also susceptible to the problem of gestational diabetes. Some of the causes of possible risk factors include a past record of gestational diabetes, or a condition of Type 2 diabetes, which is primarily responsible for the sudden fluctuations in the insulin secreted in the body. Obesity is also considered as a major risk factor.
Whatever may be the cause, the problem of gestational diabetes can create some really adverse situations in the normal course of pregnancy. These situations include adverse effects on the child about to be born. There could be some unprecedented complications in the phase of delivery. More than that, there could be some serious deformities in the physique of the child. The child could even be born abnormally fat or obese. More than that, there could be some adverse imbalances in the insulin secreted in the body. If such imbalances are perennially present, the individual would suffer from Type 2 diabetes in the future. So, such are the adverse consequences of the problem of gestational diabetes.
While the frequency of the problem is rare, there have been an increasing number of cases of gestational diabetes in the recent times. As an initial measure against the problem, women had been advised by doctors to opt for insulin injections. However, there have persisted fears and threats of fatal overdoses or even the usual fatal threats and risks which accompany the problem of excess insulin. In contrast, the oral medicines have been bound to be more effective and safe in helping regulate the sugar levels in blood. Medicines are also available to improve or enhance the action of the pancreas and keep a good and balanced secretion of the insulin in the body. So, these options are more advisable than the usual insulin injections.
The problem of gestational diabetes is not just an indication of harm to an expecting mother. It can also create many complications in the birth of the child. The child could be born obese or acquire diabetes in the future. There are some important risks. So, the women should use the ideal medication to solve this problem effectively and thoroughly.
What Is Pre-Diabetes
Pre-diabetes simply refers to a condition where the level of blood sugar is above the normal. The level is however not too high in order to be classed as type 2 diabetes. This is the condition that graduates to become type2 diabetes. Note that this can take less than ten years. If you are diagnosed with Pre-diabetes then the effects of the circulatory system and the heart that are common with diabetes may as well be on the onset.
Diagnosis of Pre-diabetes is however a good thing. It is like a chance you are given so that you can transform your health. This is with the view that there is a greater possibility of this condition graduating to type-2 diabetes. You can control any progress of the condition by eating healthy. Physical activity in this case may also help you a big deal. Just make sure that you keep the right weight.
In most cases Pre-diabetes would not show any significant symptoms
Some of the signs include;
- The skin becomes darker in some areas. This is a condition that is referred to as acanthosis nigricans. The areas that are mostly affected are armpits, neck, knees and the elbows.
- Increase thirst is also common
- Blurry vision is also a common factor in this condition
- The affected person may also experience frequent urination
When should you see the doctor?
If at all you are really concerned with diabetes or are suspicious of type-e diabetes. If you experience the symptoms above, it may do you much good if you consult your doctor early. Probably your doctor will do a blood screen on you to assess the extent of the Pre-diabetes.
Some of the risks of Pre-diabetes are inactivity, obesity, family history of the condition, gestation diabetes development, blood pressure and a low HDL cholesterol level.
There is no particular cause of Pre-diabetes. There are however some genes which have been realized to be much resistant to insulin. Excess abdominal fat is actually one of these conditions.
People with Pre-diabetes do not have the capacity to rightly process glucose in the best way. This then causes a build up of much sugar in the blood.
It is important that you understand that most of the blood glucose comes from the food we eat. Most of it actually comes from foods that contain carbohydrates. You therefore need to monitor your consumption of carbohydrates closely. Do not just assume that sweet foods are the only ones that increase the level of blood sugar.
The risk factors for the development of Pre-diabetes are the same as those which cause development of type-2 diabetes. These include weight, inactivity, family history, age, gestational diabetes, race, and inadequate sleep among a couple other factors. Being overweight is in actual sense a primary cause or risk factor for this condition. Buildup of more fatty tissue and especially around the abdomen causes resistance to insulin. Physical activity helps to control your weight as well. There is also a greater risk of Pre-diabetes in old age.
Symptoms of Diabetes
Diabetes is classified as a metabolic disorder. Metabolism is about digestion of food in our bodies. Whatever we eat is getting broken in the form of glucose which is the principal source for our bodies. Once the food gets digested then with the help of insulin, glucose enters into our cells. A human with diabetics has a situation where production of insulin stops and glucose gets jammed in the blood which results in degeneration of cells leading to severe diseases like blindness, gangrene etc. Diabetes causes due to lack of work out, overweight, or sometimes is inherited from ancestors. High sugar level leads to neuotherapy, kidney failure. Diabetic patients are likely to have heart attacks. Diabetes is not fully cured but can be controllable to a higher extent. In order to control it you should have sufficient information about diabetes symptoms and cures. One must not forget prevention is better than cure. In addition, prevention is solely dependent on the patient. Research in diabetes has come up with effective treatments.
The symptoms are discussed below.
- If you are visiting the toilet more often, it indicates a high level of glucose in your blood. If you are lacking in insulin then your kidneys may not be able to filter the glucose and hence it will get settled in your bladder which would lead to Diabetes. You will feel hungrier at time, as the insulin is not reaching to the cells in a proper way and cells need energy to work. In order to fulfil the energy, you might feel hungry. As hunger increases, you start eating more food which leads to weight gain. This is another sign of Diabetes. Unusual weight loss can also occur in case of type-1 diabetes. In this you will lose weight day by day.
- As the cells are not getting their energy, so they start looking for different energy sources. In this way muscle tissue and fat gets broken into energy which leads to weight loss. At times you will feel tired, bored and restless. This also happens because of lack of insulin in blood cells. You may not be able to focus as tissues of your eye lens get broken into energy source for cells. However, it can be cured by taking synthetic insulin.
- If you get cuts or bruises on your body it may take longer than usual to heal, as the repair system needs glucose to heal the cut. Lack of sugar in your body may restrict your ability to recover infections which makes your skin vulnerable and leads to itchy skin, which can also indicate you as a victim of diabetes.
- If your gums are red or swollen than it indicates the possibility of having diabetes. Your teeth may become loose. As the gums pull away, it may leads to mouth infection. This can be another sign of diabetes.
- If you are a man over the age of 50 and your sexual organ is not functioning then it indicates that you might be a victim of diabetes. If your sugar level has abruptly gone down, it may lead to break down of the nervous system as cells are responsible for providing energy to nerve cells.
- Diabetes is sometimes caused due to hereditary or inherited traits. It has been found the disease is transferred genetically form maternal or paternal genes to their child. If one parent is diabetic then the risk is less, but the probability increases, when both of them are tend to have diabetes.
- Age factor is also one of the major causes of diabetes. People who are in the age group of fifty’s they are prone to diabetes. Around 80% of the total patients are in or above this age group.
- Unhealthy habits can also cause diabetes. If you eat a lot of refined food items and fatty products, you are likely to have diabetes. Alternatively, it also affects people who are mal nutritive. Improper nutrition, low protein diet with less fiber intake, can be at root of diabetes.
- People, who are overweight, can suffer from diabetes. If fat accumulates around stomach waist, or thighs then it can restrict the adequate production of insulin in the body. Hence, they can suffer from diabetes.
- Lack of exercise, can also give origin to diabetes. If you have regular routine of sitting at one place, and you do not exercise then be alert diabetes can knock your door.
- During the diagnosis of diabetes is has been analyzed that hatch from either physical injury or emotional disturbance. Any disturbance in corticosteroid or ACTH may indicate the clinical signs of this ailment.
- Infection in pancreas can also induce this lethal disease. The bacteria like strephylococci are can reduce the capacity of insulin production in pancreas. Ultimately, it responds to the disease like diabetes.
- You would be amazed to know that due to the imbalances in the sexual health, can crop diabetes. Especially females those who have had multiple pregnancies, or suffer from (POCS) polycystic ovarian syndrome can get through this one.
- High blood pressure or hypertension musters diabetes, very frequently.
What Causes Diabetes
Diabetes is a mortiferous disease that is making sick many of us. According to the recent data, around 17.9 million people are diagnosed with diabetes, and the figure is continuously rising up. To add, it has been found that over 57 million people have pre-diabetes. Diabetes is basically a metabolic disorder. Metabolism refers to the process of digesting food for energy and growth. In the metabolic activity, the food that we eat is crumpled into glucose. Glucose is a principle fuel that is used as an energy source, and it is carried off by blood in cells via blood stream. However, the process has never been so easy. Glucose can never enter in cells, without the presence of insulin. Insulin is a hormone that is manufactured by the pancreas. Whenever we eat anything, pancreas immediately releases enough amount of insulin, which can circulate glucose in the blood cells. It also lowers down the blood pressure. Diabetes is also known as hyperglycemia. It occurs when; the insulin does not work properly, or are not produced at the optimum quantity. Therefore, ultimately the blood glucose level rises up, which causes diabetes.
Reasons for diabetes
Metformin is the first line anti-diabitic drug which is used to avoid the condition of increased blood sugar level in the body. Its intake is generally prescribed by the doctor to obese person. It was first discovered in 1920. It is available in medical field by the trade name of glucophage. This drug is produced by heating dimethylamine hydrochloride with dicyandiamide. Although the drug is useful for the treatment of diabetes but its application is not as much common as insulin. Actually, metformin sometimes show weaker response in the treatment of diabetes in excessively fat persons. It can reduce the absorption of glucose by gastric region through the enhancement in the oxidation of fatty acid.
Often women face the temporarily increased level of the blood sugar because of gestation period. In that condition, the women require some kind of drug to keep the blood sugar in its normal level. Otherwise, the increased sugar level can leads to the problem of miscarriage. The diabetic body can also become inhibition in the way of gestation also. Use of metmorfin is suggested to be a safer medication for curing gestational diabetes. It has been scientifically proved that the drug cannot harm adversely to the child and mother during pregnancy.
This drug is sometime affiliated with particular side effects such as diarrhea, muscular cramping, and vomiting etc. Use of metformin is suggested to be discontinued for a small time period before any kind of radiography, CT scan, sonography etc. This can cause disturbance in renal function temporarily by initiating the process of lactic acidosis. This happens because of partial retention of the drug in the body.
As a contradiction, metformin can give rise to the condition of elevated level of Thyroid Stimulating Hormone i.e. TSH in people leading to the situation of hypothyroidism. It is a kind of hormonal disorder which is caused due to malfunctioning of thyroid gland. It can bring down sudden and acute weakness in the body. Moreover, it can cause the disbalance of testosterone, the sex hormone in men. Consecutively, it causes disorders during the process of puberty.
Chemical function of metformin involves the suppression of production of sugar from the liver. This drug was not given much preference for about two years after its discovery. Discovery of insulin minimized the popularity of metformin. But, the main advantage of metformin is that it can also control the heart related problems affiliated with diabetes. Metformin is also effective to avoid the condition of hypoglycemia. It is a helpful drug in order to reduce extra weight of the person.