What Is Fertilization
The sperm of male unite with the ovum of the female to make the first cell of new life. The first cell of a offspring is called as zygote and the process of formation of zygote is called as the fertilization. The process of fertilization occurs in cases of each and every living organism, as this process is a must for the process of reproduction. Let us discuss about the process of fertilization in case of a human being in detail.
In case of the human beings, the males produce the sperms and those are stored in the testis. The sperm is available almost at every time in a human female. On the other hand, the human females produce the ovum. The fertilization occurs when the sperm meets the ovum. Ovum is not available with the human female all the time. Generally, a human female produces the ovum on the 14th day of the menstrual month and the ovum stays alive for only 48 hours. If the sperm meets with the ovum during these 48 hours, then fertilization occurs; otherwise, the ovum dies without getting fertilized. Now let us discuss, how the sperm meets with the ovum.
During the copulation, the human male pours the sperm in the vaginal tract of the human female. This process is called as the ejaculation. In each ejaculation, a human male releases millions of sperms. However, only one sperm is required for fertilization. After the ejaculation, the sperms swim towards the fallopian tube, where the ovum is placed. They swim on the vaginal fluid and the fluid released by the male at the time of ejaculation.
Only one sperm reaches at the ovum first. The sperm, which reaches at the ovum before any other sperm does the fertilization with the ovum. After the sperm gets into the ovum a protective layer formed around the ovum, so that no fresh sperm can enter into the ovum.
Both the sperm and ovum contains the half of the gene of a human cell; so, when they gets united a complete cell formed and that is called as the zygote. The zygote then transferred to the uterus, where it grows in size to become a baby. After staying at the uterus for a certain period of time, the baby comes out of the uterus through the vaginal hole. This is the process through which a new human baby gets produced.
From the above discussion, it is clear that fertilization is one main subordinate processes of the main reproduction process in the human beings. In fact, fertilization is really important in case of the reproduction of each and every living organism. However, the mechanism of fertilization process may differ from organism to organism.