What is Genetic Engineering
Genetic engineering is the modification done to a genome of an organism. This is done with the help of new and advanced DNA technology. Genetic engineering is to introduce a new element or to change the DNA structure with the main aim of bringing changes in to the organism. This introduction of new DNA does not have to be done by traditional methods. Nevertheless, these traditional methods are of use in some of the organisms.
When an organism is changed with the help of DNA technology, it is known as a genetically modified organism. The history of genetically modified organisms goes back to the 20th century during which bacteria was altered in the year 1973 and then the same moved on to 1994 to mice.
The very well known type of change is done in the form of the inserting a new genetic material into the DNA. The location in which this insertion is done is not specific and can take place in any place. This is possible by isolation of a particular genetic material and copying of the same using methods of cloning. This forms the sequence of DNA, which is required for the changes in the organisms. This DNA sequence is then inserted into the organism.
There are various uses of the genetic engineering in many fields of study. The use is mainly in biotechnology and medicine. These researches and studies have been a big boon to the field of medicine as it used in making various medicines and drugs. One of the well known medicines which are made with this is the insulin. This is used widely all over the world by diabetic patients. Another benefit of the genetic engineering is to the agricultural field that has seen crops resistant to insects and other parasitic elements.
There are various plants and animals, which are altered with the DNA technology in order to make medicines and other drugs out of them. These medicines are very much in demand because of the low cost that they involve in manufacture and thereby their purchase. These medicines are a very good and cheap alternative to the pharmaceutical drugs. One example of such genetic engineering is the milk, which obtained from genetically altered goats, which is rich in anti-thrombin. There are also various genetically altered food crops, which prevent the growth rate of many diseases caused by pathogens.
Thus, there are many benefits of genetic engineering to all the fields of technology, industry and others when used in the limited amounts. There are also some disadvantages that have to be removed with the limited use of this method.