What Is Glucose
Glucose also known as dextrose and D-glucose is a simple sugar that is a very important carbohydrate. Body cells use it as a source of energy and also for metabolism purposes. Glucose is usually one of the products of photosynthesis, a crucial process especially in plants. The term glucose is a Greek word which when translated means sweet. Most of the living organisms use the sugar unlike other monosaccharide; scientists have speculated that this is due to its unique ability to respond to amino groups and proteins. This process normally destroys most of the other enzymes unlike the glucose which have the ability to remain unaffected. However complications of the diabetes such as renal failure and neuropathy are associated with glucose glycosylation which is essential for their functions.
Glucose is an important fuel as it’s used by living organisms ranging from humans to bacteria. Glucose is used in respiration both aerobic and anaerobic. For the human body its one of the main sources of energy especially in aerobic respiration, it provides about 16 kilojoules of energy for every gram. When the carbohydrates are broken down they yields disaccharides which when translated is simple sugars. Glucose is oxidized by nitric acid to form carbon dioxide and water, in the process it gives up every bit of energy that it contains. Insulin is responsible for regulation of glucose in the blood, therefore when the sugar level is high in the blood it means that the person has a problem with glucose regulation. The brain is one of the organs that can not function properly without glucose and if its supply is low the functions of the brain such as self-control and decision making are highly affected.
The process of synthesizing of most of the substances is heavily dependent on glucose. Production of proteins and other lipids during the metabolism process cannot be done without involving glucose. Plants and other organisms also use it for production of vitamins .Lactose is one of the main components found in products such as milk which are known as animal starch. Glucose is usually a colorless and easily soluble product especially in water among other solvents. As a solid it takes on about three forms which can be crystallized in water such as a-glucopyranose, b-glucopyranose and b-glucopyranose hydrate.
Plants produce glucose as results of photosynthesis while animals produce it as result of breaking down glycogen. Animals break down the glucose in the liver while fungi do the same through chemosynthesis. In modern times glucose is produced even on commercial level by enzymatic hydrolysis of starch. Most crops that human beings use as source of staple food are good sources of starch such as cassava, maize, wheat and rice. The commercial glucose is often a component of invert sugar with a mixture of fructose and glucose.
Glucose is absorbed in the small intestine and the duodenum where it’s broken down in to monosaccharide by the pancreatic and intestinal gycosiades. Most of the other monosaccharide are not so easily processed by the human intestines and hence may require more assistance from the intestinal flora if there are to be completely broken down.