What Is Morphine
Morphine is a kind of pain relieving agent which performs it work as a narcotic substance. It stimulates the opoids in central nervous system and causes these receptors to get stimulant and change their structure to be binded with the ligand. Usually these receptors which are attached in cell membrane of the brain are lipid-protein molecules which are responsible to give rise to pain. If these receptors get bind with some substrate, they cannot perform their function properly. In this way the person gets relief from the pain. Thus, morphine is a kind of neuro-stimulator which is obtained by opium. It was discovered in December, 1804 for the first time by Friedrich Sertumer. It is also used as precursor to yield many other chemical substances such as dihydromorphine, hydromorphone etc. It is subjected for the production of heroin by its treatment with acetic anhydride which is later followed by ignition. Production of heroin facilitates drug addiction which is the greatest misuse of morphine.
Morphine is also a sort of drug which is highly subjected to drug addiction and drug abusing practices. Thus, a person should be aware enough during the dosage of morphine whether it is going habitual or eager to take this kind of medication even after the treatment of target disease. Regular consumption of this narcotic agent leads to the condition of psychological dependency of the addicted person over it. In anesthetic condition this drug is utilized to reduce the pain. In this case it decreases the pain by inhibiting the stimulation to be transmitted to the brain from spinal cord. It is used to overcome both, normal and severe pain. Labor pains can also be subjected to be treated by morphine analgesic. This drug is also useful to sought out the problem of short breathing due to malignant as well as non-malignant condition.
Side effects of morphine include constipation, fainting, hard breathing, dizziness and weakness of the body etc. But some severe effects involve depression of respiratory tract which leads to short breath and fall in respiratory rate. Apart from this, convulsions and insomnia are other serious outcomes of consumption of morphine. Irritation in skin such as itching in rashes can also takes place by the intake of this type of drug. Continuous intake of morphine by a person can affect the immune system adversely and causes weak immune response. This is possible because the drug minimizes the production of neutrophils and cytokines. Overdose of the drug can lead to the death of a person because of asphyxia i.e. low supply of oxygen to the cells of the body.