What Is Natural Selection
Natural selection is the theory which states that the animals possess beneficial traits which they pass from one generation to another. This theory is proposed by Charles Darwin. There are differences between the natural selection and evolution. Evolution basically refers to the development of the entire biological organism in the course of generations. Whereas, the natural selection theory proposed by Charles Darwin talks about specific beneficial traits and their transfer to future generations. Those species which do not pass on their beneficial traits to future generations often become extinct in the course of time.
According to the book ‘Origin of Species’ written by Charles Darwin mentions that if there is a particular trait in an organism which is beneficial to its survival, this trait is successfully passed to the further generations. As a result of the transfer of traits from one generation to another might also lead to the birth of new species in the future.
An example that could be quoted to explain the significance of the natural selection theory is the example of peppered moth that existed in England. This species which had its presence in England was deeply affected by the industrial revolution of the 19th century. The pollution caused due to the industrial revolution led to the blackening of the trees. The peppered mammoths were first in both the dark and white colors. The peppered moth in the dark colors survived easily from birds than the white ones. As this color trait helped their species to survive long, this trait was transferred from one generation to another. Presently, these moths are black in color and due to the reduction in pollution in England have turned to pale color.
The issue with the theory of natural selection is that if the plants and animals work on the theory proposed by natural selection, in the course of time there would only a homogenous pool of traits. This would the positive traits in all animals. But, looking at the reality, there is a wide diversity in species and the spontaneous mutations that occur in the species makes the gene pool in an organism complicated. The different types of selections in natural selection are viability selection, sexual selection, survival selection, fecundity selection, genic selection and the compatibility selection. Every form of selection mentioned here has one similar job of transferring the positive traits in various mediums.
There are many developments made in the theory of evolution post Darwin’s theory. But, the natural selection theory can be seen in all levels of plants and animals. IT can be seen right from the bacteria to the petals of the flowers, which follow the theory of natural selection.