What Is Oliguria
Oliguria refers to a condition in which the affected party has low output of the urine usually below 400 ml in a day. The term Oliguria is a Greek word Oliguria or Olig meaning few or small. This condition may be as a result of dehydration, hypovolemic shocks, multiple organ failure, Hypergyl cermic nonketonic syndrome, urinary obstruction and retention may be the other causes of the condition. Oliguria should not be mistaken with anuria which is an absence of urine, which is clinically detected when the person produces around 50ml of urine in a day.
Children suffering from the condition produces less than o.5ml while adults produces less than 17ml in an hour, on the other hand infants only produce less than 1ml.While in anuria the patient will produce extremely low amount of urine in Oliguria the person produces less than they should in normal circumstances.
Urine obstruction is common due to infections or growth in the urinary tract and the kidneys, therefore before Oliguiria can be authoritatively declared as the main culprit ultrasound is often performed. There are several major causes of oliguria which are classified in three major categories known as Pre-renal, renal and post renal, each of this may lead to complications which will eventually lead to Oliguria. Pre-renal causes are as result of hyper fusion of the kidneys; this often as happens when the kidneys are dehydrated due to low intake of fluids.
The condition could also be caused by diarrhea, sepsis, cardiogenic shock and massive bleeding. Renal mechanisms that lead to the condition includes damage to the kidneys as result of medication, hypo perfusion and other related complications. Post renal causes of Oliguria may occur due to obstruction of the normal flow of urine which could occur due to enlarged prostate, tumors which puts pressure on the urinary tract, fluid collection and expanded hematoma.
It’s common for people who have undergone major operations to experience Oliguria which is referred to as post operative oliguria. Post operation oliguria is considered normal response as result of the process that a person goes through during the operation. This process interferes with blood and fluid flow which has the effect of decreased glomerular filtration rate or hypotension. Increased stress in response to adrenal cortex and anti-diuretic hormones are other issues that lead to low urine output after a major operation.
Oliguria is a very common occurrence in children and infants in particular, when the urine output isles than 1ml in infants it’s not considered as a reliable sign to prove renal failure in the children unless supported by other tests.
Treating Oliguria involves getting to the underlying causes of the reduced urine output so as to successfully deal with the condition. When Oliguria is as result of low fluid intake orally increasing the intake serves to help alleviate the condition, however when this condition is acute medication and other medical processes may help in mitigating the condition as well as the damage that may have been caused by the hypo-perfusion.
Postoperative Oliguria is a normal occurrence due to the body’s response to the surgical process and the resulting stress. Usually the condition resolves itself without much assistance as the person recovers from the operation.