What is Phagocytosis

Solid particles are engulfed through the process of Phagocytosis. The particles that are engulfed through this biological process are termed as phagocytes.  The particles engulfed through this particular process may be nutrient particles as well as bacteria. The entire process of Phagocytosis belongs to a joint class known as endocytosis. Phagocytosis also involves removal of cell debris and pathogens. A few examples of the objects that are phagocytosed include dead cells and bacteria. Mineral particles are also the other types of objects that are engulfed.

Three Steps:

The entire process of Phagocytosis takes place in three steps. The three steps include:

  • Phagocytosis Do Not Occur Due to Unbound Phagocyte Surface Receptors
  • Clustering Occurs Due to Binding of Receptors
  • Particle is Consumed by the Phagocyte Itself

Phagocytosis in Mammals

Phagocytosis is a process that occurs mainly among mammals.  Phagocytosis primarily occurs due to the attachment of Pathogen-associated molecular patterns. NF-kB activation occurs due to molecular patterns. C3b as well as antibodies are the common opsonins that form the major sites of attachment. They aid in the entire process of Phagocytosis. Several phagocytes contained in the immune system of mammals help to get rid of infectious organisms as well as pathogenic bacteria. Actin-myosin is a type of contractile system that primarily supports the consumption of foreign materials. Actin-myosin contractile system plays a momentous role to assist the cell membrane to enlarge, thus facilitating it to swallow outsized particles.

Types of Degradation

It is possible to define degradation in two main ways.  The two main types of degradation are highlighted below:

  • Oxygen-dependant Degradation
  • Oxygen-independent Degradation

The entire process of oxygen-dependant degradation primarily depends on NAPDH. The process of oxygen-dependant degradation also depends on oxygen species that are reactive in nature. Release of granules play a significant role in the oxygen-dependant degradation process too. Antimicrobial peptides including lactoferrin are occur in the above-mentioned granules.

Phagocytosis in Protists

Phagocytosis occurs in many protists as well. The process of Phagocytosis generally involves a unique feeding process.  The unique feeding process involves part of the entire nourishment routine. The entire process of osmotrophic nutrition generally occurs through the method of absorption.

Phagocytosis in Ciliates

The development of Phagocytosis also occurs in Ciliates. The process of Phagocytosis occurs among ciliates in a specialized chamber or groove. Phagocytosis primarily occurs through the mouth or cytostome.   

A medical student can always view the entire course of Phagocytosis with the aid of a microscope. There can be no second thought about the fact that it can be a fascinating experience to visualize the entire development of Phagocytosis with the aid of a microscope. One can visualize the phagocyte swallowing the entire solid particle. A biological tutor can aid us to realize the process through which a phagocyte swallows a foreign particle.