What is Radical Nephrectomy
Sometimes there are such diseases which are so devastating to our body that organ which is affected by it; its removal is the only way to get rid of that disease. This type of surgery is called radical. In this surgery tumor as well as organs and tissues associated with it are removed.
Nephrectomy deals with removal of the kidney it is done because the kidney of patient is no longer able to function appropriately. Nephrectomy can be partial or complete. In partial only the diseased portion of the kidney is removed but in complete kidney removal, entire kidney is removed, part of the ureter, and the adrenal gland associated to the kidney are also detached.
It is a very big surgery so anesthesia is required to diminish the pain, discomfort and shock for patient. There are two kidneys and if one kidney is removed then there would be no drastic change in patient’s life. But, if another kidney is week or patient has already removed one kidney, then patient has to undergo through dialysis in which a person’s blood is cleansed of the toxins that are flushed out by diseased kidney.
There are two types of radical nephrectomy. One is open nephrectomy and other is laparoscopic radical nephrectomy. In open nephrectomy surgeons will cut the skin to see the organs that are removed and this is used for those patients who have tumors larger than four inches (10 cm). In this renal artery and vein are dissected and cut, ureter is cut and the adrenal gland is removed along with the kidney. The second type of surgery is performed with the help of leparscope, in which camera is used to envisage the surgical procedure and it is less invasive then open surgery.
The main risks that are involved in this big surgery are:-
Injury of internal organs like bowel, liver, spleen, pancreas. Excessive bleeding and hemorrhage. Failure of opposite kidney.
The patient has to endure general anesthesia to come out from the risk of brain damage, heart attack or stroke. Nerves can also damage which would result into back pain and other issues. But these risks should be discussed with patient clearly then he will decide whether he want to take this surgery to get rid of cancer.