What is RNA
RNA is the abbreviation for the Ribonucleic acid. A human body is made up of 3 major macro molecules and RNA is one among them. Just like a DNA, RNA also has a long formation of components called the nucleotides. Just like the DNA (Dioxyribonucleic acid) RNA too is very critical in the human body. DNA is called the building blocks of life as it contains the genes, where as RNA helps in the transportation of the genes from one cell to another. RNA plays an important role in the synthesis of proteins. It is through that messenger RNA the genetic information is transported from DNA to the ribosome. There are many viruses too which use the genetic information of RNA instead of DNA when they affect the body.
The mixture of ribose and phosphate is the composition of the RNA strands which act as the backbone to it. Four bases are basically attached to the RNA strands namely the Adeninie, cytosine, uracil and the guanine. The technique which is normally used by the viruses is to attack the genetic material of the RNA and through this the genetic material of the DNA is attacked.
There are different types of RNA with different functions. Regulatory RNA’s are the first type of RNA which is present in the human body. The main function of this RNA is to down regulate the gene. These RNA play an important role in slowing down the process of degradation of the gene. This degradation is caused by messenger RNA.
The RNA genome is the next type of RNA which plays the role of carrying the gene across the cell. When there is a virus attack, the RNA genome does carry the virus along with it. The encoding of the viral genome into proteins does take place but there are several other proteins present which protect the genome from virus particle. Thus, RNA genome gets attacked by virus and also prevents the virus from spreading.
In reverse transcription RNA are those RNA which act in the regulation of the reverse transcribing of the virus to replicate itself as a genome. The last type of RNA is the double stranded RNA which comprise of two strands similar to the DNA. The double stranded RNA play a role in triggering the RNA interference to happen in Eukaryotes. These are the different types of RNA which are present in the human body. Every type of RNA is well balanced to create for a smooth working in the body.
Hence, RNA plays a important role in the transportation of the genes which are considered to be the building blocks of life.