What Is Stem Cell Research
Description of Stem cells
In species, there are two types of stem cells: stem cells related to embryo and stem cells associated with adolescents. The stem cells of embryo are kept aloof from the mass of inner cells and forms structures in early phase of embryo period of mammals. The stem cells associated with adolescents are present in different tissues of organisms. In adolescents, stem cells act as a repair mechanism for the organisms like humans and enhance condition of adolescent tissues. In developing phase of embryo, stem cells can divide into specific cells called as pluripont cells but tries to maintain normal repair and regulation of generative organs such as skin, tissues of intestine and hemoglobin in blood.
There are three different sources of stems cells associated with adolescents: Bone marrow specially femur ,tissue having lipid cells (adipose tissue) and blood .The stem cells can be extracted from blood of umbilical cord. The blood of umbilical cord is stored in placenta and in umbilical cord after mother gives birth to the child. The stem cells can be extracted from the blood to treat genetic and hematopoietic diseases.The research on stem cells indicates that these cells can be grown artificially through culture of cells and can be divided into specific types of cells with features consistent with various tissues like muscles and nerve cells. The cells of embryo and stem cells generated through cloning have been proposed as prominent cells for medical use.
Properties of Stem cells
The first property of stem cell is its ability to manage various phases of cell division while regulating the undivided state. The second property depicts potency. It means capability to divide into specific types of cells. In rigid sense, this needs stem cells to be either of two types: totipotent or pluripotent.
There are two techniques that indicate that population of stem cells has been maintained. First one is asymmetric cell division in which a stem cell differentiates into single father cell and divided daughter cell. Other technique is called as stochastic differentiation. In this process, when one stem cell divides into two distinct daughter cells, other stem cells go through mitosis and results into two distinct stem cells similar to the original one. Medical physicians have noticed that stem cell procedure can modify the treatment of human ailments. For example- Transplantation of bone marrow is useful to treat leukemia and can be done through stem cell research. It has also been found that excess embryo developed for in vitro fertilization can be donated for beneficial use and researched.